Source code for pexpect.pxssh

'''This class extends pexpect.spawn to specialize setting up SSH connections.
This adds methods for login, logout, and expecting the shell prompt.


    This license is approved by the OSI and FSF as GPL-compatible.

    Copyright (c) 2012, Noah Spurrier <>


from pexpect import ExceptionPexpect, TIMEOUT, EOF, spawn
import time
import os
import sys
import re

__all__ = ['ExceptionPxssh', 'pxssh']

# Exception classes used by this module.
[docs]class ExceptionPxssh(ExceptionPexpect): '''Raised for pxssh exceptions. '''
if sys.version_info > (3, 0): from shlex import quote else: _find_unsafe = re.compile(r'[^\w@%+=:,./-]').search def quote(s): """Return a shell-escaped version of the string *s*.""" if not s: return "''" if _find_unsafe(s) is None: return s # use single quotes, and put single quotes into double quotes # the string $'b is then quoted as '$'"'"'b' return "'" + s.replace("'", "'\"'\"'") + "'"
[docs]class pxssh (spawn): '''This class extends pexpect.spawn to specialize setting up SSH connections. This adds methods for login, logout, and expecting the shell prompt. It does various tricky things to handle many situations in the SSH login process. For example, if the session is your first login, then pxssh automatically accepts the remote certificate; or if you have public key authentication setup then pxssh won't wait for the password prompt. pxssh uses the shell prompt to synchronize output from the remote host. In order to make this more robust it sets the shell prompt to something more unique than just $ or #. This should work on most Borne/Bash or Csh style shells. Example that runs a few commands on a remote server and prints the result:: from pexpect import pxssh import getpass try: s = pxssh.pxssh() hostname = raw_input('hostname: ') username = raw_input('username: ') password = getpass.getpass('password: ') s.login(hostname, username, password) s.sendline('uptime') # run a command s.prompt() # match the prompt print(s.before) # print everything before the prompt. s.sendline('ls -l') s.prompt() print(s.before) s.sendline('df') s.prompt() print(s.before) s.logout() except pxssh.ExceptionPxssh as e: print("pxssh failed on login.") print(e) Example showing how to specify SSH options:: from pexpect import pxssh s = pxssh.pxssh(options={ "StrictHostKeyChecking": "no", "UserKnownHostsFile": "/dev/null"}) ... Note that if you have ssh-agent running while doing development with pxssh then this can lead to a lot of confusion. Many X display managers (xdm, gdm, kdm, etc.) will automatically start a GUI agent. You may see a GUI dialog box popup asking for a password during development. You should turn off any key agents during testing. The 'force_password' attribute will turn off public key authentication. This will only work if the remote SSH server is configured to allow password logins. Example of using 'force_password' attribute:: s = pxssh.pxssh() s.force_password = True hostname = raw_input('hostname: ') username = raw_input('username: ') password = getpass.getpass('password: ') s.login (hostname, username, password) `debug_command_string` is only for the test suite to confirm that the string generated for SSH is correct, using this will not allow you to do anything other than get a string back from `pxssh.pxssh.login()`. '''
[docs] def __init__ (self, timeout=30, maxread=2000, searchwindowsize=None, logfile=None, cwd=None, env=None, ignore_sighup=True, echo=True, options={}, encoding=None, codec_errors='strict', debug_command_string=False, use_poll=False): spawn.__init__(self, None, timeout=timeout, maxread=maxread, searchwindowsize=searchwindowsize, logfile=logfile, cwd=cwd, env=env, ignore_sighup=ignore_sighup, echo=echo, encoding=encoding, codec_errors=codec_errors, use_poll=use_poll) = '<pxssh>' #SUBTLE HACK ALERT! Note that the command that SETS the prompt uses a #slightly different string than the regular expression to match it. This #is because when you set the prompt the command will echo back, but we #don't want to match the echoed command. So if we make the set command #slightly different than the regex we eliminate the problem. To make the #set command different we add a backslash in front of $. The $ doesn't #need to be escaped, but it doesn't hurt and serves to make the set #prompt command different than the regex. # used to match the command-line prompt self.UNIQUE_PROMPT = r"\[PEXPECT\][\$\#] " self.PROMPT = self.UNIQUE_PROMPT # used to set shell command-line prompt to UNIQUE_PROMPT. self.PROMPT_SET_SH = r"PS1='[PEXPECT]\$ '" self.PROMPT_SET_CSH = r"set prompt='[PEXPECT]\$ '" self.SSH_OPTS = ("-o'RSAAuthentication=no'" + " -o 'PubkeyAuthentication=no'") # Disabling host key checking, makes you vulnerable to MITM attacks. # + " -o 'StrictHostKeyChecking=no'" # + " -o 'UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null' ") # Disabling X11 forwarding gets rid of the annoying SSH_ASKPASS from # displaying a GUI password dialog. I have not figured out how to # disable only SSH_ASKPASS without also disabling X11 forwarding. # Unsetting SSH_ASKPASS on the remote side doesn't disable it! Annoying! #self.SSH_OPTS = "-x -o'RSAAuthentication=no' -o 'PubkeyAuthentication=no'" self.force_password = False self.debug_command_string = debug_command_string # User defined SSH options, eg, # ssh.otions = dict(StrictHostKeyChecking="no",UserKnownHostsFile="/dev/null") self.options = options
def levenshtein_distance(self, a, b): '''This calculates the Levenshtein distance between a and b. ''' n, m = len(a), len(b) if n > m: a,b = b,a n,m = m,n current = range(n+1) for i in range(1,m+1): previous, current = current, [i]+[0]*n for j in range(1,n+1): add, delete = previous[j]+1, current[j-1]+1 change = previous[j-1] if a[j-1] != b[i-1]: change = change + 1 current[j] = min(add, delete, change) return current[n] def try_read_prompt(self, timeout_multiplier): '''This facilitates using communication timeouts to perform synchronization as quickly as possible, while supporting high latency connections with a tunable worst case performance. Fast connections should be read almost immediately. Worst case performance for this method is timeout_multiplier * 3 seconds. ''' # maximum time allowed to read the first response first_char_timeout = timeout_multiplier * 0.5 # maximum time allowed between subsequent characters inter_char_timeout = timeout_multiplier * 0.1 # maximum time for reading the entire prompt total_timeout = timeout_multiplier * 3.0 prompt = self.string_type() begin = time.time() expired = 0.0 timeout = first_char_timeout while expired < total_timeout: try: prompt += self.read_nonblocking(size=1, timeout=timeout) expired = time.time() - begin # updated total time expired timeout = inter_char_timeout except TIMEOUT: break return prompt
[docs] def sync_original_prompt (self, sync_multiplier=1.0): '''This attempts to find the prompt. Basically, press enter and record the response; press enter again and record the response; if the two responses are similar then assume we are at the original prompt. This can be a slow function. Worst case with the default sync_multiplier can take 12 seconds. Low latency connections are more likely to fail with a low sync_multiplier. Best case sync time gets worse with a high sync multiplier (500 ms with default). ''' # All of these timing pace values are magic. # I came up with these based on what seemed reliable for # connecting to a heavily loaded machine I have. self.sendline() time.sleep(0.1) try: # Clear the buffer before getting the prompt. self.try_read_prompt(sync_multiplier) except TIMEOUT: pass self.sendline() x = self.try_read_prompt(sync_multiplier) self.sendline() a = self.try_read_prompt(sync_multiplier) self.sendline() b = self.try_read_prompt(sync_multiplier) ld = self.levenshtein_distance(a,b) len_a = len(a) if len_a == 0: return False if float(ld)/len_a < 0.4: return True return False
### TODO: This is getting messy and I'm pretty sure this isn't perfect. ### TODO: I need to draw a flow chart for this. ### TODO: Unit tests for SSH tunnels, remote SSH command exec, disabling original prompt sync
[docs] def login (self, server, username=None, password='', terminal_type='ansi', original_prompt=r"[#$]", login_timeout=10, port=None, auto_prompt_reset=True, ssh_key=None, quiet=True, sync_multiplier=1, check_local_ip=True, password_regex=r'(?i)(?:password:)|(?:passphrase for key)', ssh_tunnels={}, spawn_local_ssh=True, sync_original_prompt=True, ssh_config=None, cmd='ssh'): '''This logs the user into the given server. It uses 'original_prompt' to try to find the prompt right after login. When it finds the prompt it immediately tries to reset the prompt to something more easily matched. The default 'original_prompt' is very optimistic and is easily fooled. It's more reliable to try to match the original prompt as exactly as possible to prevent false matches by server strings such as the "Message Of The Day". On many systems you can disable the MOTD on the remote server by creating a zero-length file called :file:`~/.hushlogin` on the remote server. If a prompt cannot be found then this will not necessarily cause the login to fail. In the case of a timeout when looking for the prompt we assume that the original prompt was so weird that we could not match it, so we use a few tricks to guess when we have reached the prompt. Then we hope for the best and blindly try to reset the prompt to something more unique. If that fails then login() raises an :class:`ExceptionPxssh` exception. In some situations it is not possible or desirable to reset the original prompt. In this case, pass ``auto_prompt_reset=False`` to inhibit setting the prompt to the UNIQUE_PROMPT. Remember that pxssh uses a unique prompt in the :meth:`prompt` method. If the original prompt is not reset then this will disable the :meth:`prompt` method unless you manually set the :attr:`PROMPT` attribute. Set ``password_regex`` if there is a MOTD message with `password` in it. Changing this is like playing in traffic, don't (p)expect it to match straight away. If you require to connect to another SSH server from the your original SSH connection set ``spawn_local_ssh`` to `False` and this will use your current session to do so. Setting this option to `False` and not having an active session will trigger an error. Set ``ssh_key`` to a file path to an SSH private key to use that SSH key for the session authentication. Set ``ssh_key`` to `True` to force passing the current SSH authentication socket to the desired ``hostname``. Set ``ssh_config`` to a file path string of an SSH client config file to pass that file to the client to handle itself. You may set any options you wish in here, however doing so will require you to post extra information that you may not want to if you run into issues. Alter the ``cmd`` to change the ssh client used, or to prepend it with network namespaces. For example ```cmd="ip netns exec vlan2 ssh"``` to execute the ssh in network namespace named ```vlan```. ''' session_regex_array = ["(?i)are you sure you want to continue connecting", original_prompt, password_regex, "(?i)permission denied", "(?i)terminal type", TIMEOUT] session_init_regex_array = [] session_init_regex_array.extend(session_regex_array) session_init_regex_array.extend(["(?i)connection closed by remote host", EOF]) ssh_options = ''.join([" -o '%s=%s'" % (o, v) for (o, v) in self.options.items()]) if quiet: ssh_options = ssh_options + ' -q' if not check_local_ip: ssh_options = ssh_options + " -o'NoHostAuthenticationForLocalhost=yes'" if self.force_password: ssh_options = ssh_options + ' ' + self.SSH_OPTS if ssh_config is not None: if spawn_local_ssh and not os.path.isfile(ssh_config): raise ExceptionPxssh('SSH config does not exist or is not a file.') ssh_options = ssh_options + ' -F ' + ssh_config if port is not None: ssh_options = ssh_options + ' -p %s'%(str(port)) if ssh_key is not None: # Allow forwarding our SSH key to the current session if ssh_key==True: ssh_options = ssh_options + ' -A' else: if spawn_local_ssh and not os.path.isfile(ssh_key): raise ExceptionPxssh('private ssh key does not exist or is not a file.') ssh_options = ssh_options + ' -i %s' % (ssh_key) # SSH tunnels, make sure you know what you're putting into the lists # under each heading. Do not expect these to open 100% of the time, # The port you're requesting might be bound. # # The structure should be like this: # { 'local': ['2424:localhost:22'], # Local SSH tunnels # 'remote': ['2525:localhost:22'], # Remote SSH tunnels # 'dynamic': [8888] } # Dynamic/SOCKS tunnels if ssh_tunnels!={} and isinstance({},type(ssh_tunnels)): tunnel_types = { 'local':'L', 'remote':'R', 'dynamic':'D' } for tunnel_type in tunnel_types: cmd_type = tunnel_types[tunnel_type] if tunnel_type in ssh_tunnels: tunnels = ssh_tunnels[tunnel_type] for tunnel in tunnels: if spawn_local_ssh==False: tunnel = quote(str(tunnel)) ssh_options = ssh_options + ' -' + cmd_type + ' ' + str(tunnel) if username is not None: ssh_options = ssh_options + ' -l ' + username elif ssh_config is None: raise TypeError('login() needs either a username or an ssh_config') else: # make sure ssh_config has an entry for the server with a username with open(ssh_config, 'rt') as f: lines = [l.strip() for l in f.readlines()] server_regex = r'^Host\s+%s\s*$' % server user_regex = r'^User\s+\w+\s*$' config_has_server = False server_has_username = False for line in lines: if not config_has_server and re.match(server_regex, line, re.IGNORECASE): config_has_server = True elif config_has_server and 'hostname' in line.lower(): pass elif config_has_server and 'host' in line.lower(): server_has_username = False # insurance break # we have left the relevant section elif config_has_server and re.match(user_regex, line, re.IGNORECASE): server_has_username = True break if lines: del line del lines if not config_has_server: raise TypeError('login() ssh_config has no Host entry for %s' % server) elif not server_has_username: raise TypeError('login() ssh_config has no user entry for %s' % server) cmd += " %s %s" % (ssh_options, server) if self.debug_command_string: return(cmd) # Are we asking for a local ssh command or to spawn one in another session? if spawn_local_ssh: spawn._spawn(self, cmd) else: self.sendline(cmd) # This does not distinguish between a remote server 'password' prompt # and a local ssh 'passphrase' prompt (for unlocking a private key). i = self.expect(session_init_regex_array, timeout=login_timeout) # First phase if i==0: # New certificate -- always accept it. # This is what you get if SSH does not have the remote host's # public key stored in the 'known_hosts' cache. self.sendline("yes") i = self.expect(session_regex_array) if i==2: # password or passphrase self.sendline(password) i = self.expect(session_regex_array) if i==4: self.sendline(terminal_type) i = self.expect(session_regex_array) if i==7: self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('Could not establish connection to host') # Second phase if i==0: # This is weird. This should not happen twice in a row. self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('Weird error. Got "are you sure" prompt twice.') elif i==1: # can occur if you have a public key pair set to authenticate. ### TODO: May NOT be OK if expect() got tricked and matched a false prompt. pass elif i==2: # password prompt again # For incorrect passwords, some ssh servers will # ask for the password again, others return 'denied' right away. # If we get the password prompt again then this means # we didn't get the password right the first time. self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('password refused') elif i==3: # permission denied -- password was bad. self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('permission denied') elif i==4: # terminal type again? WTF? self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('Weird error. Got "terminal type" prompt twice.') elif i==5: # Timeout #This is tricky... I presume that we are at the command-line prompt. #It may be that the shell prompt was so weird that we couldn't match #it. Or it may be that we couldn't log in for some other reason. I #can't be sure, but it's safe to guess that we did login because if #I presume wrong and we are not logged in then this should be caught #later when I try to set the shell prompt. pass elif i==6: # Connection closed by remote host self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('connection closed') else: # Unexpected self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('unexpected login response') if sync_original_prompt: if not self.sync_original_prompt(sync_multiplier): self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('could not synchronize with original prompt') # We appear to be in. # set shell prompt to something unique. if auto_prompt_reset: if not self.set_unique_prompt(): self.close() raise ExceptionPxssh('could not set shell prompt ' '(received: %r, expected: %r).' % ( self.before, self.PROMPT,)) return True
[docs] def logout (self): '''Sends exit to the remote shell. If there are stopped jobs then this automatically sends exit twice. ''' self.sendline("exit") index = self.expect([EOF, "(?i)there are stopped jobs"]) if index==1: self.sendline("exit") self.expect(EOF) self.close()
[docs] def prompt(self, timeout=-1): '''Match the next shell prompt. This is little more than a short-cut to the :meth:`~pexpect.spawn.expect` method. Note that if you called :meth:`login` with ``auto_prompt_reset=False``, then before calling :meth:`prompt` you must set the :attr:`PROMPT` attribute to a regex that it will use for matching the prompt. Calling :meth:`prompt` will erase the contents of the :attr:`before` attribute even if no prompt is ever matched. If timeout is not given or it is set to -1 then self.timeout is used. :return: True if the shell prompt was matched, False if the timeout was reached. ''' if timeout == -1: timeout = self.timeout i = self.expect([self.PROMPT, TIMEOUT], timeout=timeout) if i==1: return False return True
[docs] def set_unique_prompt(self): '''This sets the remote prompt to something more unique than ``#`` or ``$``. This makes it easier for the :meth:`prompt` method to match the shell prompt unambiguously. This method is called automatically by the :meth:`login` method, but you may want to call it manually if you somehow reset the shell prompt. For example, if you 'su' to a different user then you will need to manually reset the prompt. This sends shell commands to the remote host to set the prompt, so this assumes the remote host is ready to receive commands. Alternatively, you may use your own prompt pattern. In this case you should call :meth:`login` with ``auto_prompt_reset=False``; then set the :attr:`PROMPT` attribute to a regular expression. After that, the :meth:`prompt` method will try to match your prompt pattern. ''' self.sendline("unset PROMPT_COMMAND") self.sendline(self.PROMPT_SET_SH) # sh-style i = self.expect ([TIMEOUT, self.PROMPT], timeout=10) if i == 0: # csh-style self.sendline(self.PROMPT_SET_CSH) i = self.expect([TIMEOUT, self.PROMPT], timeout=10) if i == 0: return False return True
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